Information about how to use the RightsLink permission system can be found at Compound fertilizers: NPK/NP/NK These products contain, in addition to nitrogen, at least one other nutrient such as phosphate (a source of P 2 O 5) and/or potash (a source of K 2 O). Severe accidents, such as violent explosion of ammonium nitrate or decomposition of nitrous oxide, have occurred at facilities producing nitrous oxide from ammonium nitrate. Yu-ichiro Izato, Kento Shiota, Kenta Satoh, Takashi Satoh, Yukinori Yahata, Atsumi Miyake. Detection and Notification Systems In both new and existing facilities that store ammonium nitrate, a fire alarm system with fire detection is required throughout under NFPA 400, along with an approved public notification/ siren system. redistribute this material, requesters must process their own requests via the RightsLink permission The primary reaction when it breaks down produces nitrogen, water vapour and oxygen. Combustion by-products include oxides of nitrogen and ammonia. Ammonium nitrate is a colourless crystalline substance (melting point 169.6 °C [337.3 °F]). Metal oxide nanoparticles as catalyst for thermal behavior of AN based composite solid propellant. Production of ammonium nitrate involves the following three steps: PRODUCTION OF AMMONIA Ammonia is obtained from natural gas after being purified and compressed, is subjected to combustion in the presence of nickel pallets as catalyst. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. 4 At high enough temperatures, however, ammonium nitrate can violently decompose on its own. Ammonium nitrate decomposes in an exothermic reaction (ΔH = –36 kJ mol −1) to produce three moles of gaseous products for each mole of solid reactant: (1) NH 4 … Ammonium nitrate is a common quaternary ammonium salt, produced by industry for a variety of purposes, spanning from fertilizer to explosive ingredient. The decomposition reactions have a complex nature, thus reducing the predictability of the hazardous properties of a fertiliser. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2009, 113 (48) , 13556-13561. Ammonium nitrate (AN) primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. Yu-Ichiro Izato, Mitsuo Koshi, Atsumi Miyake. Preparation of unsupported granulated triuranium octoxide and its use as catalyst of conversion of ammonium nitrate to nitrogen in an NH4NO3–H2O vapor–gas mixture. (X = 1,2). This process creates gases including nitrogen oxides and water vapour. production of nitrous oxide (anesthetics), the safety field also became attentive to this as a consequence of the underlying explosion risks associated with handling, transport and storage of the material, especially when subjected to elevated temperatures. The American Chemical Society holds a copyright ownership interest in any copyrightable Supporting The explosive nature of ammonium nitrate is due to its decomposition into gaseous products (nitrogen, H 2 O vapor, and oxygen) and also due to the exothermic nature of the reaction. The industrial production of ammonium nitrate entails the acid-base reaction of ammonia with nitric acid: Mafalda Valdez Lancinha Pereira, David Berthout, Carolina Petitto, Gérard Delahay, Stéphane Raux, Séverine Rousseau. Both neat AN and AN containing various contaminants are examined, however quantitative kinetics results are not encompassed. Users are Electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Structural rearrangement in the aqueous solution of surface active ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate. Violeta Koleva, Radostina Stoyanova, Ekaterina Zhecheva, Diana Nihtianova. Article Views are the COUNTER-compliant sum of full text article downloads since November 2008 (both PDF and HTML) across all institutions and individuals. Ammonium nitrate decomposition can be set off if an explosion occurs where it's stored, if there is an intense fire nearby. The rate of decomposition accelerates in the presence of chloride, organic substances and some metal ions – particularly copper (Cu 2+). Identification of Thermal Decomposition Products and Reactions for Liquid Ammonium Nitrate on the Basis of Ab Initio Calculation. Some of these are toxic, but their presence will be … The review is intended to be the most comprehensive review of decomposition … The thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 (AN), in the gas phase has been studied at 423−56 K by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry under low-pressure conditions using a Saalfeld reactor coated with boric acid. Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library. The explosion caused 29 deaths and serious … Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Most types do not continue to decompose once the fire has been extinguished. Additionally, a matrix is needed to act as a heat conveyor in the presence of sufficient heat. Hazardous Reactions None under normal processing. You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley! Proc. Stavros A. Skarlis, André Nicolle, David Berthout, Christophe Dujardin, Pascal Granger. Oren Elishav, Bar Mosevitzky Lis, Elisa M. Miller, Douglas J. Arent, Agustin Valera-Medina, Alon Grinberg Dana, Gennady E. Shter. 2. Development of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Ammonium Nitrate and Application to Shock Compression and Thermal Decomposition. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. not otherwise permitted to reproduce, republish, redistribute, or sell any Supporting Information http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.9b00538, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2020.104918, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2020.103063, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2019.11.030, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2019.104671, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2019.06.048, https://doi.org/10.1080/02726351.2019.1639866, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2018.05.159, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7322-8, https://doi.org/10.1080/10408436.2016.1244642, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.08.006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.04.063, https://doi.org/10.1134/S1066362217040026, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2017.01.047, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2014.04.004, https://doi.org/10.1080/00102200903462490. system. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Heating also poses a danger: ammonium nitrate decomposes at around 230˚C, and can explode when heated to between 260–300˚C if it’s confined. The sublimation of NH4NO3 at 423 K was proposed to produce equal amounts of NH3 and HNO3, followed by the decomposition reaction of HNO3, HNO3 + M → OH + NO2 + M (where M = third-body and reactor surface). It is this rapid release of gases that causes an explosion. Soc.1951, 73, 2319-2321) for HNO3 decomposition on glass reactors at higher temperatures. It is highly soluble in water; heating of the water solution decomposes the salt to nitrous oxide (laughing gas). Park and M. C. Lin. Condensed-phase pyrolysis mechanism of ammonium nitrate based on detailed kinetic model. The ammonium nitrate and its mechanism of decomposition in the gas phase: a theoretical study and a DFT benchmark. The CO2 gas is absorbed in NH4OH solution to form ammonium bicarbonate. This article is cited by 11. In addition nitrous oxide gas in elevated concentrations can cause health effects in operators which should be prevented. The heterogeneous decomposition rate of HNO3, HNO3 + (B2O3/SiO2) → OH + NO2 + (B2O3/SiO2), was determined by varying its rate to match the modeled result to the measured concentrations of NH3 and H2O; the rate could be represented by k2b = 7.91 × 107 exp(−12 600/T) s−1, which appears to be consistent with those reported by Johnston and co-workers (Johnston, H. S.; Foering, L.; Tao, Y.-S.; Messerly, G. H. J. Inst. The sublimation of NH4NO3 at 423 K was proposed to produce equal amounts of NH3 and HNO3, followed by the decomposition reaction of HNO3, HNO3 + M → OH + NO2 + M (where M = … Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences. Kinetic analysis of the thermal decomposition of liquid ammonium nitrate based on thermal analysis and detailed reaction simulations. 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